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Chủ đề: Giới từ trong tiếng Anh

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  1. #1
    Moderator Clementine's Avatar
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    May 2010
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    Giới từ trong tiếng Anh

    Trong tiếng Anh, giới từ là một dạng từ loại có rất ít từ nhưng lại là một dạng từ loại phức tạp. Trong bài này ta sẽ học tất cả những gì nên biết về giới từ trong phạm vi tiếng Anh cơ bản.
    * Định nghĩa giới từ:
    -Giới từ là từ giới thiệu quan hệ không gian, thời gian hoặc quan hệ logic giữa các danh từ trong câu.


    * Danh sách các giới từ cơ bản:
    - Giới từ không nhiều lắm nhưng không nhất thiết phải biết hết tất cả. Chúng tôi đã bỏ bớt một số giới từ ít gặp hơn trong tiếng Anh cơ bản. Các giới từ cơ bản bao gồm:

    about, above, across, after, against, along, among, around, at, before, behind, below, beneath, beside, between, beyond, but, by, despite, down, during, except, for, from, in, inside, into, like, near, of, off, on, onto, out, outside, over, past, since, through, throughout, till, to, toward, under, underneath, until, up, upon, with, within, without...

    * Nghĩa cơ bản của giới từ:

    - Nghĩa cơ bản của giới từ thường giúp ta tự hiểu ngay cách dùng của nó trong các trường hợp cơ bản. Tuy nhiên, khi giới từ đi sau động từ, tạo ra cái gọi là ngữ động từ (Phrasal Verb), thì có khi nó không còn mang nghĩa cơ bản nữa mà cùng với động từ, chúng tạo ra một nghĩa hòan toàn bất ngờ hoặc có khi giới từ chỉ là một từ chức năng cần phải có sau một số động từ hoặc tính từ để đúng ngữ pháp, chứ tự thân nó không mang bất kỳ nghĩa gì.

    about = về, above = bên trên, across = ngang qua, băng qua, after = sau, against = chống lại, vào, along = dọc theo, among = giữa (3 trở lên), around = quanh, vòng quanh, at = tại, lúc, before = trước, behind = đằng sau, below = bên dưới, dưới, beside = bên cạnh,
    between = giữa (2), beyond = quá, lên trên, ra ngoài, but = nhưng, by = bằng, bởi, despite= bất chấp, down = dưới, during = trong suốt (khoảng thời gian nào đó), except =ngoại trừ, for = cho, trong (khỏang thời gian), from = từ, in = trong, ở trong, inside= bên trong, into = vào, like = như, near = gần, of = của, off = theo sau động từ, tạo nghĩa riêng, on = trên, onto = lên trên, out = ngoài, outside = bên ngoài, over = ở trên đầu, trên, past = qua, quá, since = từ khi, through = xuyên qua, thông qua, throughout= suốt, từ đầu đến cuối, till = đến khi, to = đến, toward = về phía, under = dưới, until = cho đến khi, up = trên, lên, upon = theo sau động từ, with = với, within = trong phạm vi, trong vòng, without = mà không có.

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    * Vị trí của giới từ:

    - Trong tiếng Anh cơ bản, ta cần nhớ 3 vị trí chủ yếu của giới từ:

    1. Sau TO BE, trước danh từ:

    + THE BOOK IS ON THE TABLE. = Quyển sách ở trên bàn.

    + I WILL STUDY IN AUSTRALIA FOR 2 YEARS. = Tôi sẽ học ở Úc trong 2 năm.

    2. Sau động từ: Có thể liền sau động từ, có thể bị 1 từ khác chen giữa động từ và giới từ.

    + I LIVE IN HO CHI MINH CITY = Tôi sống ở thành phố Hồ Chí Minh.

    +TAKE OFF YOUR HAT! Cởi nón của bạn ra!

    + I HAVE AN AIR-CONDITIONER, BUT I ONLY TURN IT ON IN SUMMER. = Tôi có máy lạnh, nhưng tôi chỉ bật nó lên vào mùa hè.

    3. Sau tính từ:

    + I'M NOT WORRIED ABOUT LIVING IN A FOREIGN COUNTRY. = Tôi không lo lắng về việc sốngở nước ngoài.

    + HE IS NOT ANGRY WITH YOU. = Anh ấy không giận bạn.

    * Vài điểm lưu ý về giới từ:

    - AT: dùng chỉ giờ

    I GET UP AT 9 o'clock every day.

    - ON: dùng chỉ ngày, thứ

    I NEVER WORK ON SUNDAYS.

    - IN: dùng cho tháng, mùa, năm

    + I WILL LEAVE FOR AUSTRALIA IN JULY = Tôi sẽ khởi hành đi Úc vào tháng 7.

    - AT: tại, ở ; chỉ nơi chốn NHỎ như công ty, nhà hàng, khách sạn, nhà cửa, quán xá, 1địa chỉ cụ thể..

    - IN: tại, ở; chỉ nơi chốn LỚN như phường xã, quận huyện, thành phố, quốc gia...

    + MY DAUGHTER WAS BORN ON DECEMBER 2, 2004 AT A HOSPITAL ON TON THAT TUNG STREET IN DISTRICT 01.= Con gái tôi được sinh ra vào ngày 2 tháng 12 năm 2004 tại một bệnh viện trên đường Tôn Thất Tùng ở quận 01.

    - Đại từ luôn chen giữa động từ và giới từ, danh từ phải để sau giới từ không được chen vào giữa.

    + TAKE OFF YOUR HAT! Cởi nón của anh ra!

    + TAKE IT OFF! Cởi nó ra đi! (IT là đại từ nên phải chèn ở giữa)

    + HIS FATHER BEATS HIM UP EVERY DAY. = Cha nó đánh đập nó hàng ngày.

    + THAT MAN BEATS UP HIS SON EVERY DAY. = Người đàn ông đó đánh đập con trai mình hàng ngày.

    - Như ở trên có nói, khi giới từ đi sau động từ, tạo ra cái gọi là ngữ động từ, thì có khi nó không còn mang nghĩa cơbản nữa mà cùng với động từ, chúng tạo ra một nghĩa hòan toàn bất ngờ.

    + LOOK = nhìn, AFTER = sau; nhưng LOOK AFTER = chăm sóc

    + WORK = làm việc, OUT =ngoài, ra ngoài; nhưng WORK OUT = nghĩa 1: tập thể dục, nghĩa 2: nghĩ ra, nghĩa 3: có kết quả tốt...

  2. #2

    Re: Giới từ trong tiếng Anh

    CHAPTER 26. PREPOSITIONS

    The words at, in, of, on and to are examples of prepositions. A word such as a noun, pronoun or gerund following a preposition is said to be the object of the preposition. As pointed out previously, a personal pronoun following a preposition must be in the objective case.

    A phrase beginning with a preposition can be referred to as a prepositional phrase. The prepositional phrases in the following examples are underlined.
    e.g. He owns the house on the corner.
    We are waiting for her.
    She has read many books about flying.

    In the first example, the noun corner is the object of the preposition on. In the second example, the personal pronoun her is the object of the preposition for. It can be seen that the personal pronoun her is in the objective case. In the third example, the gerund flying is the object of the preposition about.

    A preposition serves to connect its object with the rest of a sentence. In doing so, a preposition indicates the relationship of the idea expressed in the prepositional phrase to the ideas expressed In the rest of the sentence.

    For instance in the sentence He owns the house on the corner, the preposition on indicates that the words the corner express the location of the house referred to in the rest of the sentence. Similarly, in the sentence We are waiting for her, the preposition for indicates that the word her expresses the reason for the action of waiting referred to in the rest of the sentence.

    Although there are fewer than one hundred English prepositions, although prepositions do not take endings, and although the structure of most prepositional phrases is simple, the use of English prepositions is very complex. The reasons for this are that most prepositions have more than one meaning, many prepositions can also be used as adverbs, prepositions are used in hundreds of idioms, many adjectives, nouns, and verbs must usually be followed by certain prepositions, and there are hundreds of phrasal verbs formed from combinations of verbs with adverbs and prepositions.

    It should also be noted that the use of prepositions varies somewhat among the different dialects of English. For instance, as illustrated in the following example, there are some differences between British and North American English in the use of prepositions.
    e.g. British Usage: There is a fence about the garden.
    American Usage: There is a fence around the garden.

    The discussion below emphasizes the North American usage of English prepositions.

    1. The meanings of prepositions

    The table below gives the most usual meanings of English prepositions. Each meaning is illustrated by an example.

    About
    1. On the subject of: This is a story about elephants.
    2. Approximately: He is about ten years old.

    Above
    1. Higher than; over: The plane flew above the clouds.
    2. Earlier on a page: There is a heading above each diagram.

    Across
    1. From one side to the other: We walked across the field.
    2. On the other side of: There is a store across the street.

    After
    1. Later in time: after ten o'clock; after lunch
    2. Later in a series: Q comes after P in the alphabet.
    3. In pursuit of: The dog ran after the cat.

    Against
    1. In opposition to: Theft is against the law.
    2. Touching; supported by: I leaned my bicycle against the wall.

    Along
    1. Following the length of: We walked along the road.

    Among
    1. Within a group: The money was shared among three people.

    Note: In formal English, among is usually used only when referring to more than two persons or things. In contrast, between is used when referring to two persons or things.

    Around
    1. Circling something: We walked around the block.
    2. Surrounding: There is a fence around the garden.
    3. In different parts of: I looked around the house for the keys.
    4. In the other direction: We turned around and went back home.
    5. Approximately: He is around six feet tall.

    At
    1. A specific location: at 23 Chestnut Street; at the park
    2. A point in time: at 5 o'clock; at Christmas
    3. A condition: at peace; at war; at rest
    4. An activity: at work; at school; at play
    5. Towards: Look at someone; wave at someone

    Note: When referring to a specific location or to a point in time, at is usually used. When referring to a certain street or a certain day, on is usually used. When referring to a location as an area, or when referring to a unit of time longer than a day, in is usually used.
    e.g. at Christmas; on Christmas day; in the Christmas holidays

    Before
    1. Earlier in time: before two o'clock; before Christmas
    2. Earlier in a series: S comes before T in the alphabet.

    Behind
    1. At the back of: The little girl hid behind her mother.
    2. Late: I am behind in my work.
    3. Cause; origin: Who was behind that idea?

    Below
    1. Lower than; under: below freezing; below sea level
    2. Later on a page: Footnotes are provided below the text.

    Beneath
    1. Lower than; below: beneath the earth

    Beside
    1. Next to; at the side of: I sit beside her in class.

    Besides
    1. Also; as well as: We study other languages besides English.

    Note the differing meanings of beside and besides. Beside is usually used with reference to a physical location.

    Between
    1. An intermediate location: Toronto lies between Montreal and Vancouver.
    2. An intermediate time: between Christmas and New Year's Day
    3. Intermediate in a series: B comes between A and C in the alphabet.
    4. An intermediate amount: between five and ten people
    5. Within a group of two: The money was shared between two people.

    Beyond
    1. Farther than: The mountains lie beyond the horizon.
    2. Further than; exceeding: That was beyond my expectations.

    But
    1. Except: I have read all but the last chapter.

    Note: But is used more often as a conjunction than as a preposition.

    By
    1. Near: a house by the sea
    2. Past: He waved as he drove by the house.
    3. Not later than: Try to finish the work by next week.
    4. In units of: cheaper by the dozen; sold by weight
    5. Through the means of: travel by plane; written by him

    Note: By is often used in combination with verbs in the Passive Voice.

    Concerning
    1. Connected with; about: He studies everything concerning trees.

    Despite
    1. In spite of: We walked downtown despite the rain.

    Down
    1. To a lower position: The ball rolled down the hill.
    2. Further along: He lives down the street.

    During
    1. Throughout a period: She works during the day.
    2. Sometime within a period: An accident occurred during the night.

    Except
    1. Not including: I have visited everyone except him.

    For
    1. Duration of time: We walked for two hours.
    2. Distance: I walked for five kilometers.
    3. Purpose: I bought this jacket for you.
    4. In the direction of: She left for New York.
    5. In favor of: We are for the proposal.
    6. Considering: The boy is clever for his age.

    From
    1. Place of origin: We left from Boston; he comes from Mexico
    2. Start of a period of time: from now on; from yesterday until today
    3. Start of a range: From 20 to 30 people were present.
    4. Cause: He suffers from nervousness.
    5. Source: I first heard the story from you.

    In
    1. Place thought of as an area: in London; in Europe
    2. Within a location: in the room; in the building
    3. Large units of time: That happened in March, in 1992.
    4. Within a certain time: I will return in an hour.
    5. By means of: write in pencil; speak in English
    6. Condition: in doubt; in a hurry; in secret
    7. A member of: He is in the orchestra; in the navy
    8. Wearing: the boy in the blue shirt
    9. With reference to: lacking in ideas; rich in oil

    Inside
    1. Within: They are inside the house.

    Into
    1. To the inside of: We stepped into the room.
    2. Change of condition: The boy changed into a man.

    Like
    1. Resembling: That looks like him.
    2. Appearing possible: It looks like rain.
    3. Be in a suitable mood for: I feel like going swimming.

    Minus
    1. Less: Three minus two equals one.

    Near
    1. Close to: near the school; near the ocean

    Of
    1. Location: east of here; the middle of the road
    2. Possession: a friend of mine; the sound of music
    3. Part of a group: one of us; a member of the team
    4. Measurement: a cup of milk; two meters of snow

    Off
    1. Not on; away from: Please keep off the grass.
    2. At some distance from: There are islands off the coast.

    On
    1. Touching the surface of: on the table; on the wall
    2. A certain day: That happened on Sunday, on the 6th of June.
    3. A certain street: on South Street
    4. About: a book on engineering
    5. A state or condition: on strike; on fire; on holiday
    6. By means of: live on a pension; shown on television

    Onto
    1. To a position on: The child climbed onto the table.

    Opposite
    1. Facing: The library is opposite the fire station.

    Out of
    1. To the outside of: She went out of the room.
    2. From among: We won two games out of three.
    3. Motive: We spoke to them out of politeness.
    4. Material: The bridge is made out of steel.
    5. Beyond: out of control; out of danger

    Outside
    1. On the outer side of: outside the house
    2. Beyond the limits of: outside my experience

    Over
    1. Above; higher than: There are cupboards over the sink.
    2. Covering: We spread an extra blanket over the bed.
    3. Across: I jumped over a puddle.
    4. More than: It cost over ten dollars; it took over an hour
    5. During: I saw him several times over the past week.
    6. By means of: We made plans over the telephone.

    Past
    1. Up to and beyond: I walked past the house.
    2. After (in time): It was past 2 o'clock; half past two
    3. Beyond: past belief

    Per
    1. For each: 60 kilometers per hour; price per liter

    Plus
    1. With the addition of: Six plus four equals ten.

    Since
    1. From a specific time in the past: I had been waiting since two o'clock.
    2. From a past time until now: I have been waiting here since noon.

    Note: Because of its meaning, the preposition since is usually used in combination with a perfect tense. It should be noted that the preposition for can also be used with a perfect tense. However, when used with reference to time, for is usually followed by a phrase referring to a period of time; whereas since is usually followed by a phrase referring to a specific time.
    e.g. I have known him for six months.
    I have known him since January.
    In the first example, for is followed by six months, which refers to a period of time. In the second example, since is followed by January, which refers to a specific time.

    Through
    1. Across; from end to end of: the main road through town
    2. For the whole of a period: I slept through the night.
    3. By means of: Skill improves through practice.

    Throughout
    1. In every part of: throughout the world
    2. For the whole of a period: throughout the winter

    Till
    Note: Till can be used instead of until. However, at the beginning of a sentence, until is usually used.

    To
    1. In the direction of: Turn to the right.
    2. Destination: I am going to Rome.
    3. Until: from Monday to Friday; five minutes to ten
    4. Compared with: They prefer hockey to soccer.
    5. With indirect object: Please give it to me.
    6. As part of infinitive: I like to ski; he wants to help.
    7. In order to: We went to the store to buy soap.

    Toward (or Towards)
    1. In the direction of: We walked toward the center of town.
    2. Near; just before (time): It rained towards evening.

    Under
    1. Beneath: under the desk; under the trees
    2. Less than: Under 100 people were present.
    3. In circumstances of: under repair; under way; under discussion

    Underneath
    1. Below, under: underneath the carpet

    Until
    1. Up to a certain time: She will stay until Friday; until 5 p.m.

    Upon
    Note: On and upon have similar meanings. Upon may be used in certain expressions, as in once upon a time, and following certain verbs, as in to rely upon someone.

    Up
    1. To a higher place: We went up the stairs.
    2. In a higher place: She lives up the hill.

    Up to
    1. As far as: up to now; I have read up to page 100.
    2. Depending on: The decision is up to you.
    3. As good as; ready for: His work is up to standard.

    Versus
    1. Against (sports, legal): The next game is England versus Australia.

    Via
    1. By way of: He went to Los Angeles via San Francisco.

    With
    1. Accompanying: He came with her; I have my keys with me.
    2. Having; containing: Here is a book with a map of the island.
    3. By means of; using: I repaired the shoes with glue.
    4. Manner: with pleasure; with ease; with difficulty
    5. Because of: We were paralyzed with fear.

    Within
    1. Inside of: within twenty minutes; within one kilometer

    Without
    1. Not having: Do not leave without your coat; without money

    See Exercises 1 and 2.

    2. Prepositions used in idioms

    Below are examples of idioms consisting of prepositional phrases. The following selection of idioms emphasizes those used in North American English. The meaning of each idiom is indicated after the colon.

    At
    not at all: not in any way
    at all times: always
    at any rate: whatever happens
    keep someone at arm's length: avoid becoming closely involved with someone
    at close quarters: very near
    at one's disposal: to be used as one wishes
    at a distance: not near
    at fault: causing something wrong
    at first: at the beginning
    see at a glance: see immediately
    at hand: near; readily available
    at last: finally, after some delay
    at a loss: uncertain what to do or say
    at the mercy of: without defense against
    at the moment: now
    at once: immediately
    at present: now
    at rest: not moving
    at risk: threatened by danger or loss
    at short notice: with little warning
    at stake: to be won or lost
    at a stretch: continuously
    at that rate: under those circumstances
    at this point: at this place; at this moment
    at the wheel: in control

    Behind
    behind the scenes: (of persons) influencing events secretly; (in a theater) behind the stage
    behind schedule: not on time

    Beside
    be beside oneself: lose one's self-control
    beside the point: irrelevant

    Between
    read between the lines: deduce a meaning that is not actually expressed

    Beyond
    beyond help: unable to be helped
    beyond a joke: too annoying to be amusing
    beyond reproach: perfect; blameless

    By
    by accident: not deliberately
    by all means: by any possible method
    bit by bit: gradually
    by chance: by accident; without planning
    by courtesy of: with the help or permission of
    win by default: win because of lack of competition
    by degrees: gradually
    perform by ear: perform (music) by listening to the sound, without referring to written music
    by hand: without the use of machinery
    by heart: from memory
    little by little: gradually
    by means of: by using
    by mistake: accidentally
    by no means: not at all
    one by one: one at a time
    by oneself: alone
    side by side: beside one another
    by the way: incidentally (used to introduce an unrelated topic of conversation)
    by word of mouth: orally

    For
    once and for all: for the last time (e.g. used when giving someone a final warning)
    for certain: definitely; without doubt
    for a change: for the sake of variety
    for example: as an illustration
    for fun: for the sake of enjoyment
    for good: permanently
    for good measure: in addition to the necessary amount
    for instance: for example; as an illustration
    for keeps: (colloquial) permanently
    for a living: as a profession
    for now: temporarily
    run for office: compete for an elected position
    for one thing: because of one reason (out of several)
    for the sake of: for the benefit of; for the purpose of
    for sale: intended to be sold
    for sure: definitely (more colloquial than for certain)
    food for thought: something which makes one think
    play for time: delay doing something in the hope that the situation will improve
    for the time being: until some other arrangement is made
    ask for trouble: act in a dangerous or foolish way
    for a while: for a period of time
    word for word: exactly as said or written

    From
    from afar: from a distance
    from all sides: from all directions
    from head to foot: (of a person) completely; all over
    from scratch: from the beginning
    from time to time: occasionally

    In
    in addition to: as well as
    in advance: before
    be in agreement with: have the same opinion as
    in any case: whatever happens
    in brief: in a few words
    in bulk: (of goods) in large amounts; not in packages
    be in charge of: have responsibility for
    in common: shared by all members of a group
    in control: having the power to direct something
    in the course of: during
    in danger: likely to be harmed
    in a daze: unable to think clearly; confused
    in debt: owing money
    in demand: (of goods or persons) desired by many people
    in depth: (investigate something) thoroughly
    in detail: (explain something) thoroughly
    in disgrace: regarded with disapproval because of having done something wrong
    in the distance: far away
    in doubt: uncertain
    in duplicate: so that there are two identical copies (of a document)
    in earnest: seriously; in a determined way
    in effect: (of rules) operating
    in the end: finally
    in fact: in reality; really
    in fashion: fashionable; accepted as being the most desirable and up to date
    in favor of: supporting (an idea)
    in flames: burning, with visible flames
    in a flash: very quickly; suddenly
    in full: without omitting anything
    in general: usually; as a whole
    hand in hand: (of persons) holding hands; (of related situations) occurring together
    in a hurry: trying to accomplish something quickly
    in jest: as a joke
    in kind: (payment) in goods rather than in money
    in itself: without reference to anything else
    in league with: (of persons) joined together with (usually for a dishonest purpose)
    be in the limelight: be the focus of attention; receive great publicity
    in the long run: in the end; eventually
    in the long term: looking ahead to the distant future
    leave someone in the lurch: abandon someone who is in a difficult situation
    be in the minority: be in the smaller of two groups
    in mint condition: (of manufactured goods) perfect; brand-new
    in a minute: soon
    in a moment: soon; quickly
    set something in motion: start something going
    nip something in the bud: put an end to something before it gets properly started
    in no time: very soon; very quickly
    in order of: arranged according to
    in order to: for the purpose of
    in part: to some degree
    in particular: especially
    in power: (of a political party) holding office
    in practice: able to do something well because of recent practice; in reality (opposite of in theory)
    in print: (of a book) printed and available from the publisher
    in private: not in front of other people
    in public: openly; not in private
    in reality: really
    in reserve: saved for later use
    in retrospect: looking back over past events
    in return for: as repayment for
    be in the right: be correct
    in season: (of fruit or vegetables) readily available at that time of year
    in a second: soon; quickly
    in short supply: scarce; not easily obtainable
    in sight: able to be seen
    in stock: (of goods at a store) present and available
    in that case: if that is true
    in theory: ideally; according to theoretical considerations
    be in time: not be late
    in touch with in: communication with; informed about
    in triplicate: so that there are three identical copies (of a document)
    be in trouble: be in a difficult situation; be blamed or punished for doing something wrong
    in tune: at the correct pitch
    act in unison: act together
    in vain: without success
    in the vicinity of: near
    once in a while: occasionally
    in words of one syllable: (explain something) clearly and simply
    in working order: able to function properly
    in the wrong: responsible for an error; guilty

    Inside
    inside out: with the inner side out; thoroughly

    Into
    paint oneself into a corner: take a course of action which greatly narrows one's future choices of action
    go into hiding: hide oneself
    get into a rut: get into a fixed and uninteresting way of life
    get into trouble: get into a difficult situation; do something deserving blame or punishment

    Of
    of course: certainly; as one would expect; as everyone knows
    hard of hearing: somewhat deaf
    next of kin: nearest relative or relatives
    of one's own accord: voluntarily; on one's own initiative
    of one's own free will: voluntarily; by choice
    one's point of view: one's opinion about something
    right of way: public right to use a path or road; (of road traffic) right to proceed before others
    rule of thumb: a simple way to calculate what procedure to follow, based on extensive experience, rather than on theoretical considerations

    Off
    go off the air: (of radio or television) stop broadcasting
    off duty: not engaged in one's regular work
    off one's hands: no longer one's responsibility
    off and on: from time to time
    off the record: say something privately, that is not to be officially recorded
    off the track: following a wrong line of thought or action

    On
    on account of: because of
    be on the air: (of radio or television) be in the process of broadcasting
    on the alert: ready to act
    be on all fours: (of a person) be on hands and knees
    on the average: usually; normally
    on behalf of: for; in the interests of
    on board: on a ship or airplane
    on business: as part of one's work
    on condition that: only if; provided that
    on demand: when asked for
    on display: being exhibited
    on duty: engaged in one's regular work
    on fire: burning
    to go on foot: to walk
    be on one's guard: be alert and ready to meet an attack
    on hand: available
    on loan: lent and not yet returned
    shoot on location: (of a movie) film in natural surroundings, not in a studio
    on the lookout: watchful
    put something on the map: cause something to become well-known
    get on one's nerves: annoy; irritate
    on no account: absolutely not
    on the one hand: (used to introduce one side of an argument)
    on one's own: alone; without help
    act on one's own initiative: act independently, without orders from anyone else
    on order: requested but not yet delivered
    on the other hand: (used to introduce a contrasting side of an argument)
    act on principle: do something to support a policy
    on purpose: deliberately
    go on record: say something which is to be officially recorded
    on sale: being sold at a lower price than usual
    on schedule: at the correct time; as planned or predicted
    on second thoughts: after thinking further about something
    on a shoestring: with a very small amount of money
    be on the spot: be where important events are taking place; be placed in an awkward situation
    on the spur of the moment: on a sudden impulse
    go off on a tangent: change suddenly to a new line of thought or action
    on time: at the correct time
    walk on tiptoe: walk on the toes and balls of the feet
    accept something on trust: accept something without proof
    on the verge of: very close to; about to
    on the whole: taking everything into consideration

    Out of
    out of the blue: unexpectedly
    out of breath: (after running) panting from a shortage of oxygen
    out of character: unlike a person's known character
    out of control: not able to be regulated or guided
    out of danger: safe
    out of date: no longer used; old-fashioned; (of news) no longer true
    out of debt: having paid one's debts
    be out of one's depth: be unable to handle a situation because of lack of experience
    out of doors: in the open air; not in a building
    out of fashion: not fashionable; not presently in common use
    out of hand: not under control
    out of harm's way: safe
    out of line with: in disagreement with
    be out of one's mind: be insane
    out of order: not functioning properly; (at a formal meeting) not behaving according to the rules
    out of the ordinary: unusual
    out of place: unsuitable
    out of practice: unable to do something as well as one has in past, because of lack of recent practice
    out of print: (of a book) no longer available from the publisher
    out of proportion: too big or too small; not having the appropriate relationship to something
    out of the question: impossible; not to be considered
    out of season: (of fruit or vegetables) not readily available at that time of year
    out of shape: (of persons) not in top condition because of lack of exercise
    out of sight: hidden, not able to be seen
    out of stock: (of goods at a store) temporarily unavailable
    out of style: not fashionable
    out of touch: with not in communication with; not informed about
    out of town: having temporarily left town
    out of trouble: not in trouble
    out of tune: not at the correct pitch
    out of work: no longer having employment

    To
    to all intents and purposes: in all important ways
    to a certain extent: partly
    to date: so far; until now
    up to date: current; modern
    see eye to eye with: agree entirely with
    take something to heart: be much affected by something
    made to measure: exactly suitable; (of clothes) made for a certain person
    keep something to oneself: not tell anyone
    to the point: relevant

    Under
    under age: below the age of being legally permitted to do something
    be under arrest: be held prisoner and charged with wrongdoing
    under the auspices of: with the patronage of; supported by
    under one's breath: in a whisper
    under the circumstances: because this is true
    under consideration: being thought about
    under control: able to be regulated or guided
    under cover of: protected by; undetected because of
    under fire: being shot at; being criticized
    under the impression that: having the idea that
    be under the influence of: be affected by
    be under oath: have sworn to tell the truth
    under observation: being watched carefully
    under restraint: prevented from doing something

    Up
    have something up one's sleeve: have a secret idea or plan in reserve

    With
    with impunity: without risk of injury or punishment
    with the naked eye: without using a magnifying lens
    with no strings attached: (of help given) with no conditions; to be used freely
    take with a pinch of salt: not believe completely
    with regard to: concerning; about
    with respect to: concerning; about
    tarred with the same brush: having the same faults
    with a vengeance: very much; more than usual

    Within
    within limits: to a certain extent; not too much
    within living memory: within the memory of people now alive

    Without
    go without saying: be obvious

    See Exercises 3 and 4.

    3. Nouns followed by prepositions

    The following are examples of nouns which are usually followed by certain prepositions. In the case of phrases which are idioms, the meanings of the phrases are indicated in brackets.

    Against
    take precautions against
    For
    have affection for make allowances for
    have compassion for an excuse for
    a reason for have a reputation for
    have respect for have sympathy for
    have a talent for lie in wait for (ambush)
    pave the way for (prepare for)
    From
    absence from
    In
    have confidence in have faith in
    have an interest in take part in
    make progress in
    Into
    have insight into
    Of
    have an abhorrence of an acknowledgement of
    take advantage of take care of
    take command of evidence of
    an example of an excess of
    make a fool of make fun of (ridicule)
    have an impression of a lack of
    neglect of a number of
    a pair of be part of
    a possibility of make a practice of (do often)
    a proof of a quantity of
    recognition of a recollection of
    a result of run the risk of (risk)
    catch sight of (see suddenly) a sign of
    a survey of a symbol of
    a symptom of a token of
    make use of a way of
    wash one's hands of (stop caring
    about and dealing with)
    On
    an attack on dependence on
    make an impression on play a joke on
    shed light on (explain) have pity on
    To
    have access to pay attention to
    an objection to a reply to
    a response to lay siege to (besiege)
    shut one's eyes to (deliberately
    ignore a problem)
    Toward or Towards
    animosity toward(s) an attitude toward(s)
    With
    have a connection with find fault with (criticize)
    fall in love with change places with

    See Exercise 5.

    4. Adjectives and verbs in the passive voice followed by prepositions

    In some cases different prepositions can be used without causing a change in meaning. For instance, the following examples both have the same meaning.
    e.g. I was angry at them.
    I was angry with them.

    However, in many cases, the use of different prepositions causes a change in meaning. For instance, the past participle protected is typically followed by the preposition from. However, like many other past participles, protected may also be followed by the preposition by, where by serves to introduce the performer of the action expressed by the past participle.
    e.g. The city is protected from the soldiers.
    The city is protected by the soldiers.
    The first example indicates that the soldiers are a threat to the city; whereas the second example indicates that the soldiers are protecting the city.

    The following are examples of predicate adjectives and past participles of verbs in the Passive Voice which are usually followed by certain prepositions. In addition, it should be kept in mind that most verbs in the Passive Voice can be followed by a phrase beginning with the preposition by.

    About
    anxious about concerned about
    curious about depressed about
    doubtful about enthusiastic about
    excited about happy about
    pleased about wrong about
    worried about
    At
    adept at alarmed at
    amazed at overjoyed at
    shocked at surprised at
    Between
    torn between
    By
    accompanied by caused by
    guided by manufactured by
    obsessed by written by
    For
    blamed for eligible for
    famous for fit for
    known for late for
    noted for praised for
    punished for qualified for
    ready for responsible for
    ripe for sorry for
    suitable for
    From
    absent from apart from
    derived from descended from
    detached from different from
    distinct from exempt from
    far from isolated from
    omitted from protected from
    removed from safe from
    separated from
    In
    absorbed in disappointed in
    engaged in immersed in
    interested in involved in
    Of
    accused of afraid of
    ashamed of aware of
    capable of certain of
    composed of conscious of
    convinced of deprived of
    devoid of fond of
    ignorant of independent of
    jealous of proud of
    regardless of reminded of
    sure of suspicious of
    suspected of terrified of
    tired of worthy of
    On
    based on dependent on
    intent on
    To
    acceptable to accessible to
    accustomed to adapted to
    addicted to adjacent to
    attached to attributable to
    close to committed to
    comparable to dedicated to
    detrimental to devoted to
    due to equal to
    equivalent to essential to
    exposed to faithful to
    favorable to foreign to
    impervious to indifferent to
    indispensable to inferior to
    kind to loyal to
    next to obedient to
    obliged to oblivious to
    opposed to parallel to
    partial to peculiar to
    preferable to prior to
    proportional to reconciled to
    reduced to related to
    relative to relevant to
    resigned to resistant to
    restricted to senior to
    sensitive to similar to
    subject to subordinate to
    suited to superior to
    susceptible to tied to
    Toward or Towards
    protective toward(s)
    With
    acquainted with affiliated with
    associated with besieged with
    compared with compatible with
    confronted with consistent with
    covered with cursed with
    exasperated with familiar with
    finished with identified with
    infatuated with patient with
    pleased with satisfied with
    synonymous with threatened with

    See Exercise 6.

    5. Verbs followed by prepositions

    The following are examples of verbs which are often followed by certain prepositions.

    About
    care about complain about
    forget about lie about (tell a lie)
    reminisce about talk about
    think about wonder about
    worry about
    Against
    discriminate against protest against
    react against rebel against
    turn against
    At
    aim at bark at
    connive at frown at
    gaze at glare at
    growl at hint at
    look at point at
    shoot at smile at
    snap at sneer at
    stare at wave at
    wink at
    For
    apply for apologize for
    beg for blame for
    budget for hope for
    long for look for
    mourn for pay for
    plead for pose for
    pray for prepare for
    press for register for
    search for shop for
    substitute for vouch for
    wait for wish for
    From
    abstain from benefit from
    deduct from derive from
    desist from deter from
    detract from deviate from
    differ from divert from
    escape from extricate from
    flee from infer from
    profit from protect from
    quote from radiate from
    recoil from recover from
    refrain from shrink from
    stem from suffer from
    In
    believe in engage in
    indulge in intervene in
    invest in participate in
    persist in succeed in
    Into
    change into convert into
    delve into dip into
    develop into divide into
    fall into merge into
    plunge into pry into
    sink into transform into
    Of
    approve of beware of
    conceive of consist of
    deprive of die of
    disapprove of smell of
    On
    blame on concentrate on
    depend on impinge on
    impose on insist on
    intrude on pounce on
    reflect on rely on
    report on spy on
    subsist on thrive on
    Over
    preside over trip over
    To
    adapt to adhere to
    adjust to amount to
    belong to conform to
    contribute to correspond to
    listen to object to
    pertain to prefer to
    refer to relate to
    respond to resort to
    revert to submit to
    subscribe to succumb to
    surrender to yield to
    With
    agree with associate with
    collaborate with combine with
    communicate with comply with
    concur with consort with
    contend with cooperate with
    cope with correspond with
    flirt with mingle with
    share with sympathize with


    See Exercise 7.

  3. #3
    Mới nở QuocVu's Avatar
    Ngay tham gia
    Nov 2012
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    Re: Giới từ trong tiếng Anh

    nhiều quá

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